Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta, declaring the independence of Indonesia in front of a crowd of 500 people outside his house at No. 56 Jalan Pegangsaan in Jakarta. Sukarno’s vision for the 1945 Indonesian constitution comprised the Pancasila (five principles). Sukarno’s political philosophy was mainly a fuse of elements of Marxism, Nationalism and Islam.
The spelling “Sukarno” is frequently used in English as it is based on the newer official spelling in Indonesia since 1947 but the older spelling “Soekarno”, based on Dutch orthography, is still frequently used, mainly because he signed his name in the old spelling. Official Indonesian presidential decrees from the period 1947–1968, however, printed his name as “Sukarno”.